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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 2329-0358

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Wilson Disease in Children; Chelation Therapy or Liver Transplantation? A 10-Year Experience from Pakistan

Sahira Aaraj, Sabeen Abid Khan ORCID logo, Naurin Ali, Munir I. Iqbal Malik, Faisal Saud Dar

(Department of Pediatrics, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan)

Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e932606

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.932606

BACKGROUND: Wilson disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder with vast clinical presentations and a higher incidence in areas where consanguinity is common. Most patients can be treated with oral chelation, but some require advanced surgical intervention, like liver transplantation (LT). This study aims to review outcomes of WD patients presenting to a tertiary care center over a period of 10 years.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Patients <18 years who were diagnosed with WD per ESPAGHAN guidelines from 2010 to 2020 were included. Presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and LT and its complications were recorded. Follow-ups were recorded, and patients were contacted by phone in cases of interrupted follow-up. Frequencies and percentages of variables were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 48 patients with WD were identified. Symptomatic disease was seen in 45 patients, with 3 diagnosed on screening. The hepatic form was common (62.2%). Mean age at diagnosis was 9.74 (range 5-17) years, 28 (58.3%) were male, while 17 (35.4%) were female. Urinary copper was increased in all patients (645.82±528.40). Oral treatment with penicillamine was given to 34 (75.5%) patients; 4 (8.9%) died while on oral treatment. Living donor LT was performed in 11 (22.9%) patients, who had a mean King’s Wilson index of 11 (range, 6-14). Currently, all LT patients are alive, with maximum graft survival of 7 years.
CONCLUSIONS: LT offers a promising treatment with good outcomes in pediatric WD. However, timely diagnosis and management with oral chelation therapy can prolong survival without LT.

Keywords: ((2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18)-octaethylporphinato)copper (II), Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure, Hepatolenticular Degeneration, Hospitals, Pediatric, Liver Transplantation

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