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Alvaro Arnau, Adalberto Benito-Hernández, María Angeles Ramos-Barrón, María Teresa García-Unzueta, José Javier Gómez-Román, José María Gómez-Ortega, Marcos López-Hoyos, David San Segundo, Juan Carlos Ruiz, Emilio Rodrigo
(Nephrology Service, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain)
Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e929491
Non-invasive biomarkers of graft rejection are needed to optimize the management and outcomes of kidney transplant recipients. Urinary excretion of IFN-g-related chemokine CXCL10 is clearly associated with clinical and subclinical T cell-mediated graft inflammation, but its relationship with antibody-mediated damage has not been fully addressed. Further, the variables influencing levels of urinary CXCL10 excretion are unknown.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 151 kidney graft biopsies (92 surveillance and 59 indication biopsies) and 151 matched urine samples obtained before biopsy were prospectively analyzed. T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (AbMR) were defined according to the 2017 Banff classification criteria. Urinary CXCL10 levels were measured by ELISA and corrected by urinary creatinine.
RESULTS: Banff scores ‘t’, ‘i’, ‘g’, and ‘ptc’ were significantly related to urinary CXCL10 levels. Multivariate analysis showed that ‘t’ (ß=0.107, P=0.001) and ‘ptc’ (ß=0.093, P=0.002) were significantly associated with urinary CXCL10. Donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) were related to the high excretion of urinary CXCL10 at 1 year after transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 17.817, P=0.003). Urinary CXCL10 showed good discrimination ability for AbMR (AUC-ROC 0.760, P=0.001). The third tertile of urinary CXCL10 remained significantly associated with AbMR (OR 4.577, 95% confidence interval 1.799-11.646, P=0.001) after multivariate regression analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: DSA was the only variable clearly related to high urinary CXCL10 levels. Urinary CXCL10 is a good non-invasive candidate biomarker of AbMR and TCMR, supplying information independent of renal function and other variables normally used to monitor kidney transplants.
Keywords: Biological Markers, Chemokine CXCL10, Graft Rejection, Kidney Transplantation