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Clinical Outcomes of Tuberculosis in Recipients After Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Noruel Gerard A. Salvador, Sin-Yong Wee, Chih-Che Lin, Chao-Chien Wu, Hung-I Lu, Ting-Lung Lin, Wei-Feng Lee, Yi-Chia Chan, Li-Man Lin, Chao-Long Chen

(Liver Transplantation Center and Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan)

Ann Transplant 2018; 23:733-743

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.911034

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine clinical outcomes using various drugs during tuberculosis (TB) treatment among living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients with TB and to assess the impact of performing LDLT in patients with active TB at the time of LDLT.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 1313 LDLT performed from June 1994 to May 2016, 26 (2%) adult patients diagnosed with active TB were included in this study. Active TB was diagnosed using either TB culture, PCR, and/or tissue biopsy.
RESULTS: The median age was 56 years and the male/female ratio was 1.6: 1. Most patients had pulmonary TB (69.2%), followed by extrapulmonary and disseminated TB (15.4% each). Fourteen (53.8%) patients underwent LDLT even with the presence of active TB. All patients concurrently received anti-TB [Rifampicin-based: 13 (50%); Rifabutin-based: 12 (46.2%); INH-based: 1 (3.8%)] and immunosuppressive drugs [Tacrolimus-based: 6 (23%); Sirolimus/Everolimus-based: 20 (77%)]. During treatment, adverse drug reactions (ADR) occurred in 34.6% of patients: acute rejection in 6 (23.1%), hepatotoxicity in 2 (7.7%), and blurred vision in 1 (3.8%). Twenty-three (88%) patients completed their TB treatment. Neither TB recurrence nor TB-specific mortality were observed. Three (11.5%) patients died of non-TB-related causes. The overall 5-year survival rate was 86.2%. Patients with ADRs had a higher incidence of incomplete TB treatment (log-rank: p=0.012). Furthermore, patients with incomplete treatment were significantly associated with decreased overall survival (log-rank: p<0.001). Immunosuppressive and anti-TB drugs used during TB treatment and performing LDLT in patients with active TB at the time of LDLT were not associated with ADRs and overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes are generally favorable with intensive peri-operative evaluation and surveillance. ADRs and incomplete TB treatment may result in poor prognosis and increased mortality rates.

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