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Percutaneous Treatment of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

Piotr Czubkowski, Malgorzata Markiewicz-Kijewska, Kazimierz Janiszewski, Małgorzata Rurarz, Piotr Kaliciński, Dorota Jarzębicka, Jan Pertkiewicz, Diana Kamińska, Irena Jankowska, Mikołaj Teisseyre, Marek Szymczak, Joanna Pawłowska

(Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Nutritional Disorders and Pediatrics, The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland)

Ann Transplant 2018; 23:845-851

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.910528

BACKGROUND: Biliary strictures (BS) are frequent after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx) and in spite of ongoing progress, they remain a significant cause of morbidity. In children, the majority of reconstruction is hepatico-jejunal anastomosis (HJA). The aim of this study was to analyze our experience in percutaneous transhepatic treatment of BS.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 2014, 589 (269 living donor) pediatric LTx were performed in our institution. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of patients with HJA who developed BS and who underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).
RESULTS: Out of 400 patients with HJA, 35 patients developed BS. There were 27 cases (77%) of anastomotic BS (ABS) and 8 cases (23%) of multilevel BS (MBS). Ninety-two PTBD sessions (2.5 per patient) were performed, with successful outcomes in 20 cases (57%). Fifteen patients, after failed PTBD, underwent surgery which was successful in 11 cases. Overall good outcomes were achieved in 31 cases (88.5%). The most common complication of PTBD was cholangitis which occurred in 5.4% of the cases. We did not find any risk factors for PTBD failure, except for treatment occurring before 2007.
CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous treatment is effective and safe in BS and is recommended as a first-line approach. The majority of patients in our study required multiple interventions, however, the overall risk of complications was low. Surgery is essential in selected cases and always should be considered if PTBD fails.

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