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Steven Van Laecke, Rogier Caluwe, Inge Huybrechts, Evi V. Nagler, Raymond Vanholder, Patrick Peeters, Bruno Van Vlem, Wim Van Biesen
(Renal Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium)
Ann Transplant 2017; 22:524-531
Hypomagnesemia is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism. Insulin hypo-secretion predicts diabetes in the general population and in transplant recipients. We aimed to assess whether magnesium improves insulin secretion and glycemic control after transplantation in prevalent hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Eligible participants were adults more than 4 months after kidney transplantation on tacrolimus with persisting serum magnesium concentrations <1.8 mg/dL randomized to magnesium oxide supplementation up to a maximum of 3 times 450 mg daily (N=26) or no supplements (N=26). Insulin secretion was assessed by OGTT-derived, first-phase insulin secretion (FPIR). The primary endpoint was the mean difference in FPIR between baseline and 6 months after randomization. Secondary endpoints were differences in HbA1c and insulin resistance, measured by HOMA. Dietary magnesium was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis.
RESULTS: Magnesium with a mean daily dose of 688±237mg in the treatment group failed to lead to significant differences between the 2 groups in FPIR, fasting glucose, HbA1c, or HOMA-IR. Persisting hypomagnesemia was very common and associated with more insulin hypo-secretion, glucose intolerance, and lower dietary magnesium intake (142±56 versus 202±90 mg; p=0.015) as compared to patients with a rise in serum magnesium over 6 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium supplementation does not improve insulin secretion in stable hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus. Persisting hypomagnesemia is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin hypo-secretion, and dietary factors.