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Marta Hreńczuk, Renata Sowińska, Olga Tronina, Piotr Małkowski, Magdalena Durlik, Marek Pacholczyk, Maciej Kosieradzki
(Nursing Department of Surgery and Transplantation, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)
Ann Transplant 2016; 21:400-407
Recurrent HCV infection following liver transplantation is a common problem, and usually has a more aggressive course than primary infection.
The aim of the paper was to present nursing problems in the care of a 22-year-old female patient after liver transplantation (Ltx) with a rapid recurrence of HCV infection shortly after Ltx.
CASE REPORT: Ltx was performed 22 July 2012 due to chronic cirrhosis secondary to HCV infection with viremia (HCV PCR 3.5×107 IU/mL). Graft function worsened 14 days following transplantation. Acute cholestatic hepatitis related to HCV reinfection was diagnosed based on biopsy. During a period of 20 months the patient received 3 different antiviral treatment regimens, beginning with a dual therapy (Interferon and Ribavirin), followed by the inclusion of Telaprevir, then Daclatasvir; however, these treatments were not successful. The fourth-line regimen with sofosbuvir (EU medical experiment) led to viremia elimination (HCV PCR) after 5 weeks of treatment. However, hepatic failure stabilization was unsuccessful, there was an increase in encephalopathy, and the MELD score was 25. Therefore, the patient underwent liver retransplantation. In the post-transplantation period, the patient was in good condition, with no viremia.
CONCLUSIONS: The most common nursing problems in the care of the patient were associated with the diagnostic process, therapies used (including experimental treatment), and progressive liver failure. The therapeutic success should be attributed to the intensive supervision and monitoring of viremia, immediate inclusion of adequate treatment methods, adequate patient preparation for diagnostic tests, and careful care after diagnostics, as well as psychological support and education.