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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 2329-0358

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Case-Control Study

Alejandro Muñoz Serrano, Ana Arias, Víctor Moreno-Torres ORCID logo, Jorge Calderón, Natalia Vicente, Valentín Cuervas-Mons

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Spain

Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e933152

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.933152

Available online: 2021-10-18

Published: 2021-11-12

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether solid organ transplant (SOT) patients have more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and worse outcome than the general population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study on 32 SOT recipients and 84 non-SOT controls matched for age and sex admitted for confirmed COVID-19. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality rate. Secondary endpoints included severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), use of high-flow oxygen therapy, and length of hospital stay.
RESULTS: The median (IQR) Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) at admission was significantly higher in SOT recipients (6 (3-8) vs 3 (2-4); P<0.01). Fever was less frequent in SOT recipients (78% vs 94%, P=0.01). SOT recipients had a higher median SaO2/FiO2 at admission (452 [443-462] vs 443 [419-452], P<0.01) and reached the worst SaO2/FiO2 value later during hospitalization 15 (10-21) vs 11 (9-14) days, P=0.01). Both groups had a similar severe ARDS rate during hospitalization (33% vs 28%) (p=0.59). There were no significant differences during hospitalization in terms of highest level of respiratory support needed, or length of hospital stay: 8.5 (5.5-21) vs 11.5 (6.5-16.5) days; P=0.34) in SOT recipients when compared to controls. In-hospital all-cause mortality rates were significantly higher in SOT recipients (21.9% vs 4.7%, P<0.01; OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.10-10.98), but among patients who died, median CCI was similar between groups (8 [6-8] vs 7 [6-8]).
CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, hospitalized SOT recipients for COVID-19 had higher in-hospital mortality compared to non-SOT patients, probably due to the greater number of underlying comorbidities, and not directly related to chronic immunosuppression.

Keywords: Liver Transplantation, Heart Transplantation, Kidney Transplantation, COVID-19, Lung Transplantation, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2