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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 2329-0358

Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Prophylaxis and Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Patients with Renal Dysfunction After Renal Transplantation

Jianyong Pan, Yingxin Fu, Yu Cao, Gang Feng, Jie Zhao, Xiaofeng Shi, Chunbai Mo, Wenli Song, Zhongyang Shen

Renal Transplantation Center, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China (mainland)

Ann Transplant 2020; 25:e925126

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.925126

Available online: 2020-08-27

Published: 2020-11-13


BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis carinii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe lung infections after renal transplantation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been recognized as a first-line treatment for chemoprophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This study aimed to establish a personalized chemoprophylaxis prescription specifically for those recipients with renal insufficiency.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 68 patients with confirmed PCP after renal transplantation. Patients were divided into 2 groups: an abnormal renal function (ARF) group (creatinine ≥1.5 ng/dl; n=37) and a normal renal function (NRF) group (creatinine <1.5 ng/dl; n=31). Clinical characteristics and prognosis of PCP in both groups were compared and analyzed.
RESULTS: Patients in the ARF group had more prophylaxis after transplantation (15 [40.5%] vs. 2 [6.5%], p=0.047), had more biopsy-proven rejections (10 [27%] vs. 1 [3.2%], p=0.008), and had lower lymphocyte counts (0.6 [05-0.9] vs. 1.1 [0.7-1.6], p<0.01). Renal function after treatment was obviously improved in the ARF group, which had a significant decrease rate in creatinine (-13.2% [-22~4.8%] vs. -4.4% [-12.6~20.9%], p=0.043).
CONCLUSIONS: PCP prophylaxis regimens for recipients after renal transplantation are still needed regardless of whether the renal functions were normal or abnormal, especially for recipients with persistent lymphopenia or rejection after transplantation.

Keywords: Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Kidney Transplantation, Pneumonia, Pneumocystis