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eISSN: 2329-0358

Outcome and Prognostic Factors of High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Cheng-ying Zhu, Guo-feng Chen, Wei Zhou, Cheng Hou, Xiao-kai Wang, Fei-yan Wang, Nan Yang, Li Wang, Shu Fang, Lan Luo, Li-xun Guan, Ran Zhang, Yu-chen Liu, Li-ping Dou, Chun-ji Gao

(School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China (mainland))

Ann Transplant 2019; 24:328-340

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.915381

Published: 2019-06-07

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic transplantation remains one of the best therapies for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 126 patients with HR-AML after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCST).
RESULTS: The disease-free survival (DFS) rates of 1 year and 3 years were 58.83% (95%CI: 50.75-68.20%) and 53.09% (95%CI: 44.59-63.22%) respectively. The cumulative relapse rates of 1 year and 3 years were 21.1% (95%CI: 14.4-28.8%) and 25.9% (95%CI: 18.1-34.5%) respectively. The cumulative incidences of III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) for 100 days was 8.70% (95%CI: 4.6-14.5%). The cumulative rate of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) for 1-year was 4.1% (95%CI: 1.5-8.7%). The cumulative transplantation related mortality rate of 1 year and 3 years were 20.1% (95%CI: 13.6-27.6%) and 21.0% (95%CI: 14.3-28.6%) respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that lower overall survival was correlated with age, bacterial or fungal infection, disease status at transplantation, III-IV aGVHD, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), white blood cell engraftment, and extramedullary involvement (P<0.05). The results of multivariate analysis were that the aforementioned factors were also related to lower overall survival except for PTLD (P<0.05). The results of univariate and multivariate analysis were that extramedullary involvement, III-IV aGVHD, and status pre-transplantation influenced DFS (P<0.05). The risk factors for relapse were status pre-transplantation and extramedullary involvement by univariate and multivariate analysis (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: HR-AML has inferior prognosis. Our study indicated the necessity of achieving remission status prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and administration of preventive treatments on high-risk patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, adequate prevention and treatment of complications are needed.

Keywords: Disease-Free Survival, Graft vs Host Disease, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, Recurrence