Pre-Transplant Left Ventricular Geometry and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Kidney Transplantation
Rohit Malyala, Lindita Rapi, Michelle M. Nash, G. V. Ramesh Prasad
Kidney Transplant Program, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
Ann Transplant 2019; 24:100-107
Available online: 2019-02-21
Preventing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after kidney transplantation motivates pre-transplant cardiac evaluation that includes two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The relationship of relative wall thickness (RWT) to left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in predicting post-transplant MACE is unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this multi-ethnic Canadian single-center cohort study, we identified 1063 adults undergoing pre-transplant TTE within 1 year pre-transplant and with minimum 6 months of post-kidney transplant follow-up for MACE, defined as a composite of coronary revascularization, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac death. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, >131 g/m² in men and >100 g/m² in women) and increased RWT (>0.45) were a priori used to define normal (no LVH, normal RWT), concentric remodeling (no LVH, increased RWT), eccentric hypertrophy (LVH, normal RWT), and concentric hypertrophy (LVH, increased RWT).
RESULTS: There were 134 MACE over 3577 patient-years of post-transplant follow-up. Both LVH (HR 1.58, p=0.022) and high RWT (HR 1.44, p=0.041) predicted MACE in multivariate survival regression analysis independently of common pre-transplant MACE risk factors. Concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy, and eccentric hypertrophy all increased the risk for MACE (4.44, 5.05, and 5.55 events per 100 patient-years, respectively) versus normal echocardiography (2.71 events per 100 patient-years, all p<0.05 for difference). In Cox interactive regression analysis, LVMI and RWT were independently associated with MACE (p=0.015, p=0.025) and significantly interacted (p=0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: LV geometric parameters beyond LVH alone can assist post-transplant prognostication in kidney transplant candidates.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases, Echocardiography, Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular, Patient Outcome Assessment