Acute Cellular Rejection in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving Rituximab Is Associated with Delayed-Onset Neutropenia
Junji Uchida, Tomoaki Iwai, Shunji Nishide, Kazuya Kabei, Nobuyuki Kuwabara, Takeshi Yamasaki, Toshihide Naganuma, Norihiko Kumada, Yoshiaki Takemoto, Tatsuya Nakatani
Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City, Osaka, Japan
Ann Transplant 2017; 22:455-462
Rituximab induces long-lasting B cell depletion in the peripheral blood and increases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines associated with regulatory B cell depletion. Previous reports showed that B cell-related cytokine release after administration of rituximab may induce acute cellular rejection (ACR) and delayed-onset neutropenia. The present study was conducted to investigate the correlation between acute rejection and delayed-onset neutropenia in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients who underwent administration of rituximab for 1 year after transplantation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June 2006 to July 2015, 47 patients with chronic renal failure received ABO-incompatible renal transplant with rituximab induction at Osaka City University Hospital. All 47 patients underwent plasmapheresis due to removal of anti-A/B antibodies and administration of rituximab, and their transplants were carried out successfully. We investigated the correlation between ACR and delayed-onset neutropenia in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients who underwent administration of rituximab for 1 year after transplantation.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients (29.8%) experienced ACR (group A), and 33 recipients did not develop ACR (group B). The frequency of delayed-onset neutropenia was higher in group A than in group B (p=0.0503). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the frequency of ACR correlated significantly with the prevalence of delayed-onset neutropenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that ACR in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients receiving rituximab was associated with delayed-onset neutropenia.
Keywords: ABO Blood-Group System, Graft Rejection, Kidney Transplantation, Neutropenia