Logo Annals of Transplantation Logo Annals of Transplantation Logo Annals of Transplantation

22 November 2016 : Review article  

Recent Progress in Xenotransplantation, with Emphasis on Virological Safety

Joachim DennerABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.900531

Ann Transplant 2016; 21:717-727

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported. And third, potential zoonotic microorganisms have been identified in pigs and sensitive methods to detect them have been generated. In 2 clinical trials treating diabetic patients with porcine islet cells, no porcine microorganisms were transmitted to human recipients. Furthermore, strategies to eliminate potentially zoonotic microorganisms from donor pigs in order to prevent transmission to the recipients have been developed, including designated pathogen-free (DPF) breeding. In addition, strategies to prevent transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) have been developed, including a knockout of all proviruses in the pig genome by gene editing. PERVs are integrated in the genome of all pigs and therefore they cannot be eliminated by DPF breeding. Since they are able to infect human cells, they represent a special risk in xenotransplantation. Despite the achievements, some problems remain: numerous genetically multi-modified pigs have been generated without fully evaluating their advantage, and microbiological screening of pigs to be used for transplantations and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from the donor pigs are still not satisfactory.

Keywords: transplant rejection, Microbiological Safety, transplant survival, Xenotransplantation

0 Comments

In Press

20 Jan 2022 : Original article  

Impact on Waitlist Outcomes from Changes in the Medical Eligibility of Candidates for Simultaneous Liver-Ki...

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.934850  

19 Jan 2022 : Original article  

Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders in Relation to Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy (CAV) Intensification in He...

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.933420  

18 Jan 2022 : Original article  

PLGA+Fe₃O₄+PFP Nanoparticles Drug-Delivery Demonstrates Potential Anti-Tumor Effects on Tumor Cells

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.933246  

17 Jan 2022 : Original article  

Impact of Thyroid Incidentaloma on Liver Transplant: A Study of 1010 Recipients at a Single Center

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.934988  

Most Viewed Current Articles

29 Dec 2021 : Original article  

Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus-Based Maintenance Regimens in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Sys...

DOI :10.12659/AOT.933588

Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e933588

22 Dec 2021 : Original article  

Comparison of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring with Dobutamine Stress Echo for Detection of Coronary Artery ...

DOI :10.12659/AOT.934163

Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e934163

12 Jan 2022 : Original article  

Risk Factors for Developing BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study of ...

DOI :10.12659/AOT.934738

Ann Transplant 2022; 27:e934738

01 Dec 2021 : Original article  

Solid-Phase C1q/C3d Fixing Readouts Correlate with High Median Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) De Novo Donor-S...

DOI :10.12659/AOT.934175

Ann Transplant 2021; 26:e934175

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358