Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and In-Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism in Liver Cirrhosis: A Single-Center Retrospective Observational Study
Xintong Zhang, Xingshun Qi, Valerio De Stefano, Feifei Hou, Zheng Ning, Jiancheng Zhao, Ying Peng, Jing Li, Han Deng, Hongyu Li, Xiaozhong Guo
Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:969-976
Risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), may be increased in liver cirrhosis. We conducted a single-center study to explore the epidemiology, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality of VTE in Chinese patients with liver cirrhosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients with liver cirrhosis who were consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively included.
RESULTS: Of 2006 patients with liver cirrhosis included, 9 patients were diagnosed with or developed VTE during hospitalization, including 5 patients with a previous history of DVT, 1 patient with either a previous history of DVT or new onset of PE, and 3 patients with new onset of VTE (PE, n=1; DVT, n=2). Risk factors for VTE included a significantly higher proportion of hypertension and significantly higher red blood cells, hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), D-dimer, and Child-Pugh scores. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with VTE than those without VTE (33.3% [3/9] versus 3.4% [67/1997], P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: VTE was observed in 0.4% of patients with liver cirrhosis during hospitalization and it significantly increased the in-hospital mortality. Elevated PT/INR aggravated the risk of VTE.
Keywords: Adult, Aged, 80 and over, China - epidemiology, Hospital Mortality, Liver Cirrhosis - mortality, Multivariate Analysis, Risk Factors, Venous Thromboembolism - mortality