Determining eligibility for and preparation to kidney transplantation of a patient with Lynch syndrome – a case report and literature review
Jolanta Gozdowska, Monika Bieniasz, Michał Wszoła, Rafał Kieszek, Piotr Domagała, Jakub Drozdowski, Aleksandra Tomaszek, Artur Kwiatkowski, Andrzej Chmura, Magdalena Durlik
Department of Transplantation Medicine and Nephrology, Medical University of Warsaw, Institute of Transplantology, Warsaw, Poland
Ann Transplant 2014; 19:124-128
Background: Lynch syndrome (HNPCC, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is a syndrome of predisposition to cancer inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. A person with Lynch syndrome has a considerably increased risk of colorectal cancer in comparison with the general population.
Case Report: We present a case of a 24-year-old man with Lynch syndrome (carrying an MLH1 gene mutation) who had colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed at 16 years of age. During this time, he had a colectomy performed and chemotherapy was administered (5-FU, CDDP, Leucovorin). Due to hepatic metastases, a decision was made to change chemotherapy to IF with ADM, as a result of which complete remission was obtained. However, kidney failure developed. Its cause was not fully elucidated. The patient was treated by hemodialyses. After six years of complete remission of cancer, kidney transplantation started to be considered. Before the patient was found eligible for transplantation, extended diagnostic tests were performed: whole body PET scan, tumour marker tests and intestinal endoscopy, which did not reveal any abnormalities. The patient had a family donor (mother) who had no contraindications to kidney donation. Kidney transplantation was performed on 15/10/2012. Induction with basiliximab was used, along with steroids, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil was also administered. Three months after the procedure CNI/mTOR conversion was performed. The maintenance treatment includes prednisone, everolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. One year after transplantation, renal function is normal. The patient is subjected to close oncological surveillance.
Conclusions: The risk of recurrence or new development of cancer related to immunosuppressive treatment should be considered on a case-by-case basis. In patients with a history or high risk of cancer, immunosuppression protocols based on the m-TOR pathway inhibitors should be used, if possible. Oncological surveillance and early detection of new cancer lesions are also important.
Keywords: Kidney Transplantation, Lynch syndrome, malignancies