Andrzej Wiecek, Michal Nowicki, Franciszek Kokot, Eberhard Ritz
Ann Transplant 1996; 1(3): 5-13
Acute failure of the transplanted kidney is a major problem in the early posttransplant phase and is recognized as a major cause of graft loss. Early renal transplant dysfunction is mainly due to ischemic damage (acute tubular necrosis), rejection, infection, and cyclosporin A toxicity. Less common causes include bleeding, ureteral obstruction, urinary leak, venous thrombosis, and stenosis or occlusion of the renal transplant artery. Recent advances in both invasive (renal biopsy) and non-invasive (imaging and biochemical) techniques have improved specifity and sensitivity of the diagnosis of the acute renal failure. Several procedures which aim to prevent the kidney transplant failure have recently been introduced. Although they were shown to reduce the incidence of early allograft failure, their influence on the long-term graft survival remains to be proven.
Keywords: renal transplantation, acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, CyclosporinA, acute renal failure